Christianity in Kazakhstan

On the history of Christianity in Kazakhstan. The first appearance of Christians in Central Asia, in the city of Merv, according to a medieval historian, al-Biruni, referred to as the beginning of the III century АD. Historical sources mention the existence of construction of III-IV centuries, intended, apparently, for the Christian cult. Early in IV century the formation of the Archdiocese Nestorian Christians (one of the earliest areas of Christianity) in the capital of Sogdiana, Samarkand. The Nestorians, persecuted in Byzantium and Syria actively moved into the territory of Central Asia.

Along with Nestorianism in Central Asia are being implemented and Jacobites - Syrian Monophysites, states that Jesus Christ is only the divine nature (the main directions of Christianity acknowledge the divine-human nature of Christ, in which the divine and the human beings without confusion and inseparable). It is also known that in the region were presented Melchites - representatives of the ancient Syrian Orthodox Church, subordinated to the Patriarch of Antioch.

However, after the adoption of Islam by Turks influence of Christianity has weakened considerably and XII-XIII centuries in Central Asia almost no Christian communities.

Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan

History of the Orthodox Church in Kazakhstan. Orthodoxy in Kazakhstan is the second largest after the faithful of Islam religious direction.

The story of Orthodoxy in our country is associated initially with military settlements that have arisen as a result of the accession of Kazakhstan to Russia. In the south, the first military parables (small churches, houses of worship) appear in 1866 in Turkestan and Shymkent. In 1871 Turkestan Eparchy was formed.

In 1872 the chair of created Verny and Semirechensk diocese was appointed the first Kazakhstani bishops - Archbishop Zephaniah (SV Sokolsky), who ruled the diocese for 1877.

Construction of churches in the southern part of Kazakhstan began in the 80s. XIX century. So, in 1901 in Syrdarya region had eight stone temples built of brick. By the beginning of XX century. Turkestan (which included many lands of Kazakhstan) lived 391,000 Orthodox Christians and 306 churches acted.

The establishment of Soviet power in 1917 led to the outbreak of large-scale atheist campaign, which lasted seven decades. The campaign was accompanied by the destruction of churches, the persecution of the clergy, the confiscation of property of the church. In the 1920-1930-ies many priests were executed or sentenced to long prison terms.

In the 30-ies of the twentieth century. Kazakhstan became a place of exile for the clergy and laity of the Russian Orthodox Church. This period coincided with the beginning of the process of collectivization, which resulted in a nomadic way of life was destroyed by the Kazakhs, were devastated by the Kazakh villages and farms of Russian immigrants, which resulted in an unprecedented in the history of the edge of hunger, whose victims were millions of people.

Certain relaxations in respect of religion began in the years of the Great Patriotic War, when the Russian Orthodox Church supported the patriotic spirit of the Soviet people in the struggle against the fascist invaders. Kazakhstan began to reopen the temples.

Restoration of Orthodox life in our country began in 1945, when it was established by Kazakhstan and Almaty diocese, the first of which was the ruling bishop, Metropolitan Nicholas (Mogilev), now canonized.

However, all the way from the atheistic policy of the State is not refused. Religious activity was strictly controlled power.

Orthodoxy in independent Kazakhstan

Genuine revival of the Orthodox Church in our country started after Kazakhstan gained independence. The place of the Orthodox Church in the life of our society's President Nursultan Nazarbayev has expressed very succinctly: "... Orthodoxy and Islam - the two pillars on which rests the spirituality of Kazakhstan."

The recognition of freedom of conscience allowed the faithful to return to full-fledged spiritual life. If in 1956, operating in Kazakhstan only 55 parishes of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), then at the beginning of 1999 with 212 parishes and 8 monasteries operated on the territory of the republic.

Currently in Kazakhstan there are 326 Orthodox religious communities and 289 religious buildings.

In 1995, the state has transferred the Church of Ascension Cathedral in Almaty, built in the early twentieth century and recognized as a unique monument of architecture. Orthodox communities returned to churches in other cities. Kazakhstan has contributed to the restoration of Christ the Savior in Moscow. Free gift of our country has become the direction of granite with Kordai field intended for the finishing of the temple walls.

In recent years, built the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Almaty, the Annunciation Cathedral in Pavlodar, Seraphim Iver Cathedral in Ekibastuz, the Cathedral of St. John the Theologian in Taldykorgan, Constantine and Helen Church in Kostanay, St. Nicholas Church in Satpayev, the Dormition Cathedral in the city Astana and many other churches across Kazakhstan. In 2009, it built the cathedral of the Holy Dormition Cathedral in Astana. Also, several monasteries open.

The number of officially recognized holidays in Kazakhstan joined the Orthodox feast of Christmas (7 January).

In recent years, it carried out a structural reform of Orthodoxy in our country. In May 2003, the Holy Synod of the Orthodox Church decided to establish in the Republic of Kazakhstan as a part of the Metropolitan District of Astana, Shymkent and Uralsk dioceses. The Metropolitan District - is a special form of association of dioceses that exists within the Russian Orthodox Church only in Kazakhstan. The county was created in order to coordinate religious outreach, publishing, social and other socially significant activities of the dioceses in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2003-2010 district headed by Metropolitan Methodius (the Germans). In 2010, the head of the district appointed Metropolitan of Astana and Kazakhstan Alexander (Mogilev).

Roman Catholicism in Kazakhstan

The Catholic Church in Kazakhstan. The first Catholic missionaries in Kazakhstan were Franciscan monks. On behalf of the Roman pontiff in 1245, the mission Giovanni del Plano Carpini was sent to the Great Khans.

The Catholic Church in Kazakhstan. The first Catholic missionaries in Kazakhstan were Franciscan monks. On behalf of the Roman pontiff in 1245, the mission Giovanni del Plano Carpini was sent to the Great Khans.

In 1253-1255 years another Franciscan Guillaume Rubruk traveled from Constantinople to Karakorum, a large part of its path passes through the territory of modern Kazakhstan. The notes Rubruk can discover interesting historical information about the medieval life of Central Asia. It is known that with the Turkic khans corresponded head of the Catholic Church Nicholas IV and John XXII.

History of Catholicism in Kazakhstan continued in the XVIII - the second half of the XIX century, when there were Polish exiles, military and special settlers.

At the end of the XIX century. in Kostanay there was a Catholic church, a branch of Omsk arrival. At the beginning of the XX century. Kostanay parish priests served in Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions, where there were communities of Polish and German Catholic immigrants.

In 1917, the jurisdiction of Kostanay arrival there were 6000 Catholics and 8 houses of worship. In Petropavlovsk there was the church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (the only Catholic Church in Kazakhstan, preserved since before the Revolution).

In the 1930-1950-ies our country has become a place of mass deportations and deportations of Germans, Poles, Lithuanians, Ukrainians, which has led to the emergence of a significant Catholic populations.

Official authorization for the construction of temples Catholics were able to get only in the late 70s. Twentieth century. In 1978 St. Joseph church was built in Karaganda, a religious association in Tselinograd (now Astana) was registered in 1979.

Genuine revival of the Catholic community became possible only after Kazakhstan gained independence.

In October 1992, Kazakhstan has established diplomatic relations with the Vatican. Agreement on mutual cooperation between the two states was signed on 24 September 1998 Our republic became the first country in the former Soviet Union, to take such a step.

Seminary "Mary - Mother of the Church" In 1998, the first Catholic institution of higher education in Central Asia was founded in the city of Karaganda.

An important event for Kazakhstan became Pope John Paul II's state visit to Astana in September 2001. The head of the Vatican met with President Nursultan Nazarbayev, visited the area of the Motherland, held a meeting with students of the Eurasian National University. LN Gumilyov. The Cathedral of Our Lady of Perpetual Help the Pope celebrated the Holy Mass and in the Congress Hall met with representatives of the world of culture, art and science.

This visit, of course, was possible thanks to a balanced state policy of our country in the sphere of inter-confessional relations. "The spirit of openness and cooperation is part of your tradition, since time immemorial, Kazakhstan is a land of meetings and Neighbourhood different traditions and cultures," - said in his speech the pontiff Astana.

In May 2003, is now operating the organizational structure of the Catholic Church in Kazakhstan was approved. Currently, Kazakhstan has a Catholic church province (archdiocese), the center of which is the Archdiocese of St. Mary in Astana.

The composition of the ecclesiastical province in Kazakhstan are also included Karaganda diocese, the Diocese of the Most Holy Trinity in Almaty and the Apostolic Administration of Atyrau.

Archdiocese in Astana is headed by Archbishop Tomash Peta. Karaganda diocese headed by Adel Del'oro and Apostolic Administration in Atyrau - Dariusz Buras. Catholic diocese headed by Bishop of Almaty Mumbiella Jose Luis Sierra.

In addition, the territory of Kazakhstan has the highest Catholic seminary and the monastery of the Discalced Nuns of the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary from Mount Carmel in the city of Karaganda, Republican Charitable Fund "Caritas".

The newspaper of the Roman Catholic Church in Kazakhstan "Credo."

In Karaganda operates Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Fatima.

Today in the republic operate 84 Catholic communities, 5 of which are a branch of the Greek Catholic Church in Kazakhstan.

Protestantism in Kazakhstan

Protestantism in Kazakhstan. Protestantism in its doctrine is not monolithic and is characterized by an ever-increasing number of religious movements.

Some Protestant denominations have appeared in Kazakhstan in the period of accession of Kazakhstan to Russia (Lutherans), and the new Protestant movements - since 1991. In Kazakhstan, there are more than 600 local religious associations Protestant. Thus Protestantism is the second religion of Islam after the passage in the number of religious associations, the second religion after Catholicism over by the number of missionaries and the second after the Islamic religious movement in the number of religious buildings.

The largest and most represented in all regions of the country among the Protestant churches are Pentecostal churches. The originality of their creed is mystical and individualistic understanding of the church, which consists of faith in the ability of individuals to receive more than the gift of spiritual revival and the "baptism of the Holy Spirit."

In Kazakhstan they arose in the early 1990s and gave rise to a very large group of charismatic churches, the largest of which are the IRA "Sun Bok Ym" (7 organizations), IRA "New Life" (41 association), IRA "Agape" (28 associations), IRA "Source of life" (27 organizations).

The next largest groups and followers are Evangelical Christians-Baptists (181 Association). Among them are centralized structure - Church Union of Evangelical Christians-Baptists, only 135 religious organizations and 46 independent Baptist churches.

Presbyterian Church are 107 associations. The largest of them are local religious associations, "Grace" - 20 and "Grace" - 9.

In the regions of Kazakhstan are active religious movements which have arisen in XIX-XX centuries. This local religious organization "Jehovah's Witnesses" (60 organizations), local religious organization "Seventh-day Adventists" (42 associations) and 26 local religious associations "of the New Apostolic Church."

Evangelical Lutheran Church is represented by 13 local religious organizations in Almaty, Akmola, Zhambyl, Karaganda, Kostanai, Pavlodar, East Kazakhstan, North Kazakhstan regions and Astana and Almaty cities.

To date, there are 13 religious associations trainers in the country. First Methodist Church in the country was registered in 1991 in Almaty. Their appearance is caused by the active work of foreign missionaries as the Korean Methodist Church, and the Russian United Methodist Church.